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pankaj ghemawat > academic resources
Working Papers

Ghemawat, Pankaj.
"Global Standardization vs. Localization: A Case Study and a Model."
In The Global Market: Developing a Strategy to Manage Across Borders,
edited by John A. Quelch and Rohit Deshpandé.
San Francisco, Calif.: Jossey-Bass, 2004.
Pankaj Ghemawat uses a case study of STAR in Asian satellite TV. His historical overview describes STAR's initial targeting of the top 5 percent of Asian TV consumers, which allowed for a standardizable product of largely Western programming in English. Very quickly, however, STAR was forced to abandon this approach and move toward localizing programming content with local regional languages. STAR's miscues are revealing, all the more so because of the key lessons learned. Ghemawat builds an economic model based on the START TV case example and then elaborates on why the anticipated convergence of consumer tastes did not occur. He point to three specific antistandardization factors: cultural (especially linguistic) differences between countries (the "home bias"), administrative and political differences between countries, and infrastructural differences (such as differences in the sophistication of TV ratings systems in the STAR TV case).

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Working Papers

Ghemawat, Pankaj.
"Semiglobalization and Competitive Strategy."
Working Paper, 2003 (March.)

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Working Papers

Ghemawat, Pankaj, and Daniel E. Levinthal.
"Choice Interactions and Business Strategy".
(Former title: "Choice Structures, Business Strategy and Performance: A Generalized NK-Simulation Approach")
Harvard Business School Working Paper 01-012, revised October 2002.
Choice settings are strategic to the extent that they entail cross-sectional or intertemporal linkages. These same factors may impose daunting demands on decision makers. We develop a graph-theoretic generalization of the NK model of Kaufman (1993) in order to model the way in which policy choices may be more or less strategic. We use this structure to examine, thorugh simulation, how fully articulated a strategy or set of policy choices must be to achieve a high level of performnce, and how feasible it is to offset past strategic mistakes through tactical adjustments (instead of alighment). Our analysis highlights the role of asymmetry in the interaction of strategic  hoices and in particular the degree to which choices vary in terms of being influential, dependent, or autonomous from other choices.

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Working Papers

Ghemawat, Pankaj.
"Capital Commitment and Profitability: An Empirical Investigation."
Supplement. Oxford Economic Papers 38 (November 1986): 94-110.
Opportunities to precommit costs can either increase the rents of incumbent firms (by deterring entry), or decrease them (through commitment races and lapses into noncooperation). Authors seek to discriminate statistically between these predictions in the determinants of profits of businesses in a cross-section of concentrated markets for producer nondurables. Overall, a business's profitability declines with its industry's scope for precommitting production capacity (sunk costs). However, variables interacted with the scope for commitment do not point clearly toward one or the other mechanism. Therefore, commitment opportunities seem likely to lead to deterrence and noncooperative rivalry in proportions that differ idiosyncratically among markets.

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