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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat, Steven A. Altman
"Tata Consultancy Services: Selling Certainty"
PG0004

This case provides an opportunity to examine the growth of offshore services from the perspective of India's oldest and largest IT services firm. Focusing on Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) at this stage of its development offers a window into the process of upgrading within a sector that historically competed based on low prices, as TCS aspires to compete also on a promise of superior quality. The case also provides an opportunity to discuss the international expansion of emerging market-based companies and the shifting geography of the IT services industry in the context of TCS's expansion in Latin America and Western IT services firms' expansion in India.
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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat, Ravi Madhavan
"Mittal Steel in 2006: Changing the Steel Game"
PG0002

Mittal Steel's remarkable rise to the top of the steel industry spearheaded a wave of cross-border consolidation that aimed to fundamentally change the industry's competitive and geographic structure. This case provides the opportunity to examine how Lakshmi Mittal built his company's position via international acquisitions, to assess the logic of global integration in the steel industry, and to think through how Mittal can continue adding value to its acquired operations on an ongoing basis (i.e., post-turnaround) as a global steel company.
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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat, Steven A. Altman
"The Indian IT Services Industry in 2007"
PG0003

The Indian IT Services sector's rapid, profitable growth has transformed the geography and economics of IT while simultaneously spearheading India's broader economic resurgence. Discussion focuses on what many regard as the iconic Indian sector and illustrates the globalization that is under way in parts of the service sector. The case offers students the opportunity to analyze this industry's rise and prospects at a period when many observers were questioning whether its growth could be sustained.
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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat, Jordan Mitchell
"Grolsch: Growing Globally"
PG0001

Grolsch reassesses its international strategy in light of the company's recent acquisition by SABMiller, the world's second-largest brewer. Grolsch was the 21st-largest global beer brand, sold 51.5 percent of its volume in international markets, and exported to 70 countries. However, its poor profitability in international markets--four countries alone accounting for two-thirds of foreign sales--and churn of markets and distribution partners raised concerns about the company's international strategy and execution. Grolsch's 60 years of history in foreign markets provides a rich backdrop to introduce a range of international strategy topics, including performance assessment, rationale for expansion, market selection, and choice of entry mode.
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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat
"Sears, Roebuck and Co.: The Merchandise Group"
Harvard Business School Case 794-039


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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat, Patricio Del Sol
"Power Across Latin America: Endesa de Chile"
Harvard Business School Case 799-015

Endesa, a privatized Chilean electricity generator, has made significant investments in the privatization of Argentina's electricity sector and is now contemplating an even larger privatization opportunity in Peru. In deciding how much to bid in Peru, Endesa must account for the political context in which privatization is being undertaken, as well as a host of other uncertainties.

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat
"Philips Medical Systems in 2005"
Harvard Business School Case 706-488


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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat, Raymond Hill, L.G. Thomas
"Southern Co. Investment in CEMIG"
Harvard Business School Case 707-512

In the spring of 1997, Southern Company had the opportunity to acquire a significant portion of the electric utility in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. The shares in the utility, CEMIG, were being sold by the state government as part of a comprehensive privatization of Brazil's electric sector. Brazil's privatization was, in turn, part of a world wide movement toward deregulation and privatization of the electric sector. Like many of its rivals in the utility sector, Southern had committed itself to a strategy of growth by taking advantage of the significant opportunities for cross-border investment that were being created by this trend. The privatization of CEMIG was a particularly appealing opportunity for Southern. Not only was CEMIG one of the largest utilities in Latin America, but this investment would provide a base in the Brazilian market, which was expected to have the largest potential for further growth on the continent. Brazil was in the process of reforming its system of regulating electric utilities and of introducing competition into Brazil's wholesale generating market. These changes would further enhance the potential profitability of investing in CEMIG. In addition to the attractiveness of the investment, Southern had been able to secure non-recourse financing for half of the required amount. Keeping in mind Brazil's volatile economic history, this financing would substantially limit Southern's downside risk. The state government had set a price of $1.1 billion for the block of shares. Was the investment in CEMIG worth that price?

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat, Jamie L. Matthews
"Globalization of CEMEX"
HBS Premier Case Collection 701-017

CEMEX is a Mexican company that has become a major international competitor in cement while maintaining a higher level of profitability than other, longer-established majors. CEMEX's superior profitability supplies a basis for discussing the sources of superior performance in a global context. In addition, the wide array of benefits that CEMEX derives from its operations in different countries broadens conventional notions of why firms globalize.
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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat
"THE GLOBALIZATION OF CEMEX"
Harvard Business Publishing Case 907-410


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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat, Eduardo Ballarin, Jose Manuel Campa
"Santander's Acquisition of Abbey: Banking Across Borders (B)"
Harvard Business School Case 707-485

Banco Santander, Spain's largest commercial bank, announced in July 2004 the acquisition of Abbey National Bank, the fifth largest U.K. commercial bank. This transaction was the largest ever cross-border acquisition in European banking and would result in the 10th-largest bank in the world. Discusses the main sources of value creation from international expansion and acquisitions in the commercial banking industry. Also, highlights the barriers to integration within the single market of the European Union in a regulated service industry such as commercial banking.
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Ballarín Fredes, Eduardo; Campa, Jose Manuel
"La adquisición de Abbey por Banco Santander: banca transfronteriza (B)"
Harvard Business Publishing HBS-9707485

Banco Santander, el mayor banco español, anunció en julio de 2004 la compra de Abbey National Bank, la quinta entidad financiera de Reino Unido. Esta adquisición fue la más importante del sector en Europa y colocó al banco español en el décimo lugar del ranking mundial. El caso aborda las principales fuentes de creación de valor derivadas de la expansión internacional y las compras en el sector de la banca. Asimismo, destaca las barreras a la integración que aún existen en la Unión Europea en un sector regulado como la banca comercial. - See more at: http://www.iesep.com/en/la-adquisicion-de-abbey-por-banco-santander-banca-transfronteriza-51876.html#sthash.G0fuugBN.dpuf

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat, Sonia Marciano
"De Beers at the Millennium"
Harvard Business School Case 706-518

At the time of the millennium, diamond demand was threatened by an increasing awareness among jewelry customers that diamond production and trading in some countries was being linked to growing inequities and human rights violations. This, in turn, had an impact on De Beers' reputation and consumer confidence in the diamond as a product that represented integrity, love, and commitment. In 2000, De Beers' sustainability depends on the ability of its leaders to shift the paradigm of both the firm and its context and embrace a distinctly different strategy.
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Pankaj Ghemawat, David Kiron, Carin-Isabel Knoop
"AmorePacific: From Local to Global Beauty"
Harvard Business School Case 706-411

Suh Kyung-Bae, the President and CEO of AmorePacific, a South Korean cosmetics company, was an ardent globalizer. In its home market, AmorePacific had held off major multinational players such as L'Oreal and Estee Lauder and had engaged them in markets around the world, from France to China. The case discusses the company's position and options in the Korean, French, U.S., and Chinese markets. To reach their aim to run one of the top 10 cosmetics companies in the world, with 4 billion in sales by 2015 (1.2 billion from outside Korea), company managers had to ensure that as a global company, AmorePacific amounted to more than the sum of its country parts--a challenge compounded by deep differences across countries. Related questions included: in which countries should AmorePacific focus invest resources and managerial emphasis and attention? How concerned should they be about the diversity of approaches being taken in the three major countries/regions? And what role did non-organic options--aquisitions or joint ventures--plan as a way of boosting international growth rates?

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat, Catherine Thomas
"Arcelik Home Appliances: International Expansion Strategy"
Harvard Business School Case 705-477

The Turkish home appliances firm Arcelik is revisiting its growth strategy. Options for growth include continuing to promote currently owned brands in international markets, acquiring new brands, expanding OEM or private-label contracts, and/or diversifying into other businesses within Turkey. Details Arcelik's position within various markets and relevant features of the home appliances industry.

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat, Thomas M. Hout, Jordan Siegel
"Haier's U.S. Refrigerator Strategy 2005"
Harvard Business School Case 705475

Haier, the first Chinese consumer durable brand in the United States, succeeded in the compact refrigerator, freezer, and air conditioner markets and then built a U.S. factory to enter the full-size market. Issues include the value of a local entrepreneur to the Asian manufacturer entering the United States; brand building and price positioning; the sourcing location decision trade-off between production costs and logistics costs; the role of change in the U.S. appliance distribution channels; global and regional competitive analysis; the response of U.S. competitors to the global sourcing evolution; and the time horizons of Chinese company management.
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Pankaj Ghemawat, Michael G. Rukstad, Jennifer L. Illes
"Arcor: Global Strategy and Local Turbulence"
Harvard Business School Case 704-427

Argentine confectionery manufacturer, Arcor Group, seeks to implement an international strategy but in 2003, recovering from the Argentine financial crisis, thwarts globalization plans. Already Latin America's leading candy producer and an exporter to over 100 countries, Arcor analyzes how it can become truly global with production facilities and distribution networks in various regions, such as North America, Europe, and Asia. First, however, Arcor must stabilize its operations at home, where a devalued peso, economic uncertainty, and political instability still linger from the devastating financial crisis.
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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat, Stephen P. Bradley, Ken Mark
"Wal-Mart Stores in 2003"
HBS Premier Case Collection 704-430

Examines Wal-Mart's development over three decades and provides financial and descriptive detail of its domestic operations. In 2003, Wal-Mart's Supercenter business has surpassed its domestic business as the largest generator of revenues. Its international operation seems poised to become the next growth driver for the company as it marches toward the trillion dollar sales mark. But problems are starting to surface even as the company is winning recognition as the number one company in the Fortune 500--unions keep pressuring its minimum-wage employees and allegations of gender discrimination are alleged. Teaching purpose: To introduce students to creating a competitive advantage.

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat, Jose Luis Nueno
"ZARA: Fast Fashion (Multimedia Case) "
Harvard Business Publishing Multimedia Cases 703-416

Focuses on Inditex, an apparel retailer from Spain, which has set up an extremely quick response system for its ZARA chain. Instead of predicting months before a season starts what women will want to wear, ZARA observes what's selling and what's not and continuously adjusts what it produces and merchandises on that basis. Powered by ZARA's success, Inditex has expanded into 39 countries, making it one of the most global retailers in the world. But in 2002, it faces important questions concerning its future growth.
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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat
"ZARA: Fast Fashion, Video"
Harvard Business Publishing Video Supplement 703-900

Presents roundtable discussions and vignettes introducing the company and providing an inside view of the four stages of ZARA's business system, including design, sourcing and manufacturing, distribution, and retailing.

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat
"Revitalizing Philips (B)"
Harvard Business School Case 703-502

Supplements the (A) case.

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat, Pedro Nueno
"Revitalizing Philips (A)"
Harvard Business School Case 703-501

Philips is a major science-based multinational that has been restructuring since the early 1970s. This case provides an historical perspective on earlier efforts as well as a detailed description of the one pursued under Cor Boonstra, CEO from 1996 to 2001, that reorganized Philips from a product-country matrix structure into global product divisions. Closes with Boonstra's successor, Gerard Kleisterlee, facing the challenge of defining his own agenda for the company.

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat, Jose Luis Nueno
"ZARA: Fast Fashion."
Harvard Business School Case 703-497

Focuses on Inditex, an apparel retailer from Spain, which has set up an extremely quick response system for its ZARA chain. Instead of predicting months before a season starts what women will want to wear, ZARA observes what's selling and what's not and continuously adjusts what it produces and merchandises on that basis. Powered by ZARA's success, Inditex has expanded into 39 countries, making it one of the most global retailers in the world. But in 2002, it faces important questions concerning its future growth.
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Cases and Teaching Notes

Ghemawat, Pankaj, Nueno Iniesta, José Luis
"Zara: Moda rápida"
IESE Business School Case M-1152

Inditex, minorista de ropa en España, ha establecido un sistema extremadamente rápido de respuesta para su cadena de Zara. En vez de predecir con una antelación de meses lo que desearán usar las mujeres en la temporada, Zara observa qué está vendiendo y qué no, y ajusta continuamente lo que produce y comercializa sobre esa base. Impulsado por el éxito de Zara, Inditex se ha expandido a 39 países, convirtiéndose en uno de los minoristas más globales del mundo. Pero en el año 2002, se enfrenta a preguntas importantes respecto a su crecimiento futuro. - See more at: http://www.iesep.com/en/zara-moda-rapida-70660.html#sthash.12JBPX80.dpuf

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Jan W. Rivkin, Pankaj Ghemawat
"USA Today Decision, Spreadsheet"
Harvard Business School Case 792-516

Spreadsheet to (9-792-030). Presents exhibits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. Download Only.

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Jan W. Rivkin, Pankaj Ghemawat
"USA Today Decision, Spreadsheet"
Harvard Business School Case 703-765

Spreadsheet to (9-792-030). Presents exhibits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. Download Only.

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat
"ZARA: FAST FASHION"
Harvard Business Publishing Case 703-901

VHS Format only. For DVD see '9-703-900'. Presents roundtable discussions and vignettes introducing the company and providing an inside view of the four stages of ZARA's business system, including design, sourcing and manufacturing, distribution, and retailing.

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Ghemawat, Pankaj, Lupu, Raluca, Herlicq, Bruno, Nueno Iniesta, Pedro
"Revitalizar Philips (B)"
IESE Business School Case E-55

Véase el caso Revitalizar Philips (A).

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Ghemawat, Pankaj, Lupu, Raluca, Herlicq, Bruno, Nueno Iniesta, Pedro
"Revitalizar Philips (A)"
IESE Business School Case E-54

Después de un 2000 brillante, Philips está haciendo frente a las dificultades de una ralentización económica mundial que ha golpeado duramente el sector de la tecnología particularmente, y al cambio de consejero delegado. En 2002, el presidente y consejero delegado de Philips, así como el equipo de la alta dirección, deben reformular su estrategia para revitalizar a la compañía. - See more at: http://www.iesep.com/en/revitalizar-philips-a-7692.html#sthash.i8podexB.dpuf

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat
"De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd. (B)"
Harvard Business School Case 702-434

Supplements the (A) case.

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat
"Embraer, Video"
Harvard Business Publishing Video Supplement 701-803

A promotional video from the Brazilian aircraft company Embraer.

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat, Timothy J. Keohane
"STAR TV in 1993: (A)"
Harvard Business School Case 701-012

Describes STAR TV, a pan-Asian satellite network that has standardized its strategy across its target markets. STAR's acquisition by Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation provides an opportune point to analyze whether the viability of this strategy is likely to increase or decrease over time. This analysis sets up a broader discussion of the dynamics of globalization.
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Pankaj Ghemawat
"Economic Evidence on the Globalization of Markets"
Harvard Business Publishing Case 701-015

Presents the systematic evidence in the context of the microeconomic model of market integration. Market integration is just one (economic) aspect of globalization; this is one of the particular interests to business managers.

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat, Gustavo A. Herrero, Luiz Felipe Monteiro
"Embraer: The Global Leader in Regional Jets"
Harvard Business School Case 701-006

Embraer is the story of a company from a developing country, Brazil, that has become the leader in a high-tech field, regional passenger jets. Embraer's first family of regional jets has been highly successful and, at the time of the case, it is embarking on a major commitment to a second, larger family. At the same time, though, it is embroiled in a bitter dispute at the World Trade Organization about Brazilian export financing. In addition, it faces issues related to its capital structure and corporate strategy.
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Pankaj Ghemawat
"ERICSSON IN CHINA: MOBILE LEADERSHIP"
Harvard Business Publishing Case 700-137


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Pankaj Ghemawat, Gregg Friedman, Long Nanyao
"Ericsson in China: Mobile Leadership"
Harvard Business School Case 700-012

Focuses on Ericsson in the Chinese mobile phone market--the company's largest single market, and one that is still growing at rates in excess of 50%. Permits comparison of two distinct ways of entering the Chinese market: by forming joint ventures with local competitors or with a WFOE (wholly foreign-owned enterprise) structure. But the bulk of the case is devoted to changes in the Chinese market and in mobile phone technology, and the threats that they pose to the sustainability of existing competitive advantages as well as the new opportunities that they open up.
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Pankaj Ghemawat, Tarun Khanna
"Tricon Restaurants International: Globalization Re-examined"
Harvard Business School Case 700-067

Describes a leading fast food operator/franchiser trying to consolidate and standardize its operations worldwide and focus its efforts on a few key markets. Lends itself to a discussion of how global the fast food industry is, whether Tricon's new international strategy is consistent with industry structure and its competitive position, and, if so, which country markets to focus on.
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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat, Gregg Friedman
"Wal-Mart in 1999"
Harvard Business School Case 799-118

Supplements Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat
"BRITISH SATELLITE BROADCASTING VERSUS SKY TELEVISION"
Harvard Business Publishing Case 799-078


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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat
"Cia. Bozano, Simonsen of Brazil: Partnering in Privatization"
Harvard Business School Case 799-037

Shifts attention to the international context by looking at Cia. Bozano, Simonsen (CBS), a privately-held Brazilian group that has been a leading player in Brazil's privatization efforts in the 1990s. CBS has participated in privatizations across a wide array of industries in very different ways and with very different partnership structures--shedding additional light on the factors that determine how well interorganizational relationships work. CBS also faces important issues regarding the extent to which it could continue to participate in privatizations along a broad front as opposed to focusing on a few sectors.

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat, C. Fritz Foley
"Cooperating to Compete: EGS of Turkey"
Harvard Business School Case 799-024

In the early 1980s, Turkey adopted policies that liberalized trade as a part of a structural adjustment program. Within the garment industry, small- and medium-scale enterprises were not well positioned to take advantage of the new opportunities to compete in international markets. In order to overcome challenges in marketing, obtaining financing, and negotiating with government trade officials, competitors came together to form Ege Giyim Sanayi ve Dis Ticaret A.S. (EGS). EGS's rapid expansion forced it to face crucial questions about both its governance structure and future diversification opportunities.

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat, Jan W. Rivkin
"Creating Competitive Advantage"
Harvard Business School Case 798-062

A firm such as Schering-Plough that earns superior, long-run financial returns within its industry is said to enjoy a competitive advantage over its rivals. This note examines the logic of how firms create competitive advantage. It emphasizes two themes: First, to create an advantage, a firm must configure itself to do something unique and valuable. The firm must ensure that, were it to disappear, someone in its network of suppliers, customers, and complementors would miss it and no one could replace it perfectly. The first section uses the concept of "added value" to make this point more precisely. Second, competitive advantage usually comes from the full range of a firm's activities--from production to finance, from marketing to logistics--acting in harmony. The essence of creating advantage is finding an integrated set of choices that distinguishes a firm from its rivals. The second section shows how managers can analyze the full range of activities to understand the sources of added value.

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Pankaj Ghemawat, Gary P. Pisano
"Sustaining Superior Performance: Commitments and Capabilities"
Harvard Business Publishing Case 798-008

Presents evidence on the unsustainability of many competitive advantages, reviews the typical threats to the sustainability, and discusses ways in which those threats can be combatted.

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Pankaj Ghemawat
"STAR TV in 2000"
Harvard Business School Case 706-418

Supplements the (A) case.

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat
"Competition and Business Strategy in Historical Perspective”
Harvard Business School Case 798-010

This case is available in only hard copy format (HBP does not have digital distribution rights to the content). As a result, a digital Educator Copy of the case is not available through this web site. Describes the contributions of strategic concepts in the business world, and how they came to be influenced by competitive thinking.

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Pankaj Ghemawat
"Du Pont's Titanium Dioxide Business (F)"
Harvard Business School Case 797-078

Provides students with the opportunity to track industry evolution over time, to explore the role that signaling may play in such evolution, and to construct and validate industry scenarios.

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Pankaj Ghemawat
"E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co.: Dióxido de titanio (B4)"
Harvard Business Publishing HBS-309S13

El caso brinda a los estudiantes la oportunidad de hacer un seguimiento de la evolución del sector, analizar el papel que podrían desempeñar las señales de mercado en dicha evolución y crear y validar escenarios futuros del sector. - See more at: http://www.iesep.com/en/el-negocio-de-dioxido-de-titanio-de-du-pont-d-supplement-67887.html#sthash.sPgn6s0B.dpuf

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Pankaj Ghemawat
"E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co.: Dióxido de titanio. Situación sectorial y competitiva"
Harvard Business Publishing HBS-711S01

El caso brinda a los estudiantes la oportunidad de hacer un seguimiento de la evolución del sector, analizar el papel que podrían desempeñar las señales de mercado en dicha evolución y crear y validar escenarios futuros del sector. - See more at: http://www.iesep.com/en/el-negocio-de-dioxido-de-titanio-de-du-pont-f-supplement-67911.html#sthash.lO4Z7zVp.dpuf

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Stephen P. Bradley, Pankaj Ghemawat, Sharon Foley
"Wal-Mart Stores, Inc."
HBS Premier Case Collection 794-024


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Pankaj Ghemawat
"British Satellite Broadcasting versus Sky Television"
HBS Premier Case Collection 794-031

Describes the rivalry between two competitors who have attempted to become the dominant force in the emerging British satellite television industry. Can be used to examine issues of competitive positioning, technology adoption, and scenario analysis. Helps students make decisions given competitive challenges and industry uncertainties.
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Pankaj Ghemawat, Scott B. Garell
"USA Today Decision: Making Headlines Across the Nation (B)"
Harvard Business School Case 792-031

Provides an update and supports additional discussion of the process by which Gannett pursued the USA Today project.

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Pankaj Ghemawat, Scott B. Garell
"USA Today Decision: Making Headlines Across the Nation (B) "
Harvard Business School Case 792-031

Provides an update and supports additional discussion of the process by which Gannett pursued the USA Today project.

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Pankaj Ghemawat, Scott B. Garell
"USA Today Decision: Making Headlines Across the Nation (A)"
Harvard Business School Case 792-030

This two-part case series describes how the option of launching USA Today was defined and evaluated by the Gannett Corp. This case supports a broad discussion of whether the concept of a national, general interest daily fits with the changing external environment and Gannett's internal resources and capabilities; it also allows specific analysis of the economics of the proposed venture.

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Pankaj Ghemawat, Benjamin C. Esty
"Gillette's Launch of Sensor"
Harvard Business School Case 792-028

The introduction of the Sensor Shaving System, one of the biggest product launches ever, forced Gillette to reevaluate its strategy in its shaving and non-shaving business. It had to decide whether to go ahead with the launch and if so, at what scale. Permits analysis of the margins and volumes the Sensor is likely to achieve, and issues of sustainability and flexibility.

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Pankaj Ghemawat, Toby Lenk
"De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd. (A)"
Harvard Business School Case 391-076

Describes the problems facing De Beers at the start of 1983. De Beers had, since its formation in 1888, exercised a large measure of control over the world supply of diamonds. In 1983, the company itself mined over 40% of the world's natural diamonds and, through marketing arrangements with other producers, distributed over 70%. For 50 years up to 1983 the company had never lowered its prices and, overall, had raised them significantly ahead of the rate of inflation. However, in 1983 the company was faced with a series of problems that threatened the structure it had so carefully built. First, a large producing nation had stopped selling through De Beers. Second, new discoveries meant that the annual supply of mined diamonds would double by 1986. Finally, the industry was experiencing its worst slump since the 1930s, resulting in a significant deterioration in the company's financial position. Describes the structure and economics of the diamond industry and asks the student to decide whether or not De Beers should abandon the business strategy it had pursued for nearly a century.
**Teaching Note Available

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Pankaj Ghemawat
"THE US AIRLINE INDUSTRY, 1978-1988 (A) AND (B)"
Harvard Business Publishing Case 390-169


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Pankaj Ghemawat
"THE ETHYL CORPORATION IN 1979"
Harvard Business Publishing Case 390-164


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Pankaj Ghemawat
"Du Pont's Titanium Dioxide Business (E)"
Harvard Business School Case 390-117

Provides students the opportunity to track industry evolution over time, to explore the role that signaling may play in such evolution, and to construct and validate industry scenarios.

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Pankaj Ghemawat
"Du Pont's Titanium Dioxide Business (D)"
Harvard Business School Case 390-116

Provides students the opportunity to track industry evolution over time, to explore the role that signaling may play in such evolution, and to construct and validate industry scenarios.

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Pankaj Ghemawat
"Du Pont's Titanium Dioxide Business (C)"
Harvard Business School Case 390-115

Provides students the opportunity to track industry evolution over time, to explore the role that signaling may play in such evolution, and to construct and validate industry scenarios.

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat
"Du Pont's Titanium Dioxide Business (B)"
Harvard Business School Case 390-114

Provides students the opportunity to track industry evolution over time, to explore the role that signaling may play in such evolution, and to construct and validate industry scenarios.

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat
"E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co.: Dióxido de titanio (B5)"
Harvard Business Publishing HBS-309S14

El caso brinda a los estudiantes la oportunidad de hacer un seguimiento de la evolución del sector, analizar el papel que podrían desempeñar las señales de mercado en dicha evolución y crear y validar escenarios futuros del sector. - See more at: http://www.iesep.com/en/el-negocio-de-dioxido-de-titanio-de-du-pont-e-supplement-67890.html#sthash.ZxDJtDPd.dpuf

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Pankaj Ghemawat
"E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co.: Dióxido de titanio (B3)"
Harvard Business Publishing HBS-309S12

El caso brinda a los estudiantes la oportunidad de hacer un seguimiento de la evolución del sector, analizar el papel que podrían desempeñar las señales de mercado en dicha evolución y crear y validar escenarios futuros del sector. - See more at: http://www.iesep.com/en/el-negocio-de-dioxido-de-titanio-de-du-pont-c-supplement-67863.html#sthash.RMxXxQnm.dpuf

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Pankaj Ghemawat
"E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co.: Dióxido de titanio (B2)"
Harvard Business Publishing HBS-309S11

El caso brinda a los estudiantes la oportunidad de hacer un seguimiento de la evolución del sector, analizar el papel que podrían desempeñar las señales de mercado en dicha evolución y crear y validar escenarios futuros del sector. - See more at: http://www.iesep.com/en/el-negocio-de-dioxido-de-titanio-de-du-pont-b-supplement-67860.html#sthash.TsEH90xs.dpuf

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat
"Du Pont's Titanium Dioxide Business (A)"
Harvard Business School Case 390-112

This case series is a vehicle for examining the strategic logic and risks of preemption. Rewritten versions of earlier cases.

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat
"E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co.: Dióxido de titanio (B1)"
Harvard Business Publishing HBS-309S10

Esta serie de casos constituye una buena herramienta para examinar la lógica estratégica y la prevención de riesgos. Se trata de versiones de casos anteriores. - See more at: http://www.iesep.com/en/el-negocio-de-dioxido-de-titanio-de-du-pont-a-67974.html#sthash.3oKEkrr9.dpuf

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat, Nancy Donohue
"U.S. Airline Industry--1978-88 (B)"
Harvard Business School Case 390-026

Examines the airline industry's primary competitors (Texas Air, United, American, Delta, Northwest, TWA, USAir, and Pan Am) and traces their strategic moves in the areas of planes, people, routes, and marketing. Teaching/learning emphasis is on finding out who wins, who loses, and why. Provides a follow-up to U.S. Airline Industry--1978-88 (A).
**Teaching Note Available

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat, Nancy Donohue
"U.S. Airline Industry--1978-88 (A)"
Harvard Business School Case 390-025

Describes the evolution of the airline industry in the first decade after deregulation (1978-88). Looks at the primary areas of operation in which managers can effect change (planes, people, routes, marketing). The basic teaching objective is to cover industry structure with emphasis on competitive advantage, commitment, and sustainability. May be used with U.S. Airline Industry--1978-88 (B).
**Teaching Note Available

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Pankaj Ghemawat
"ADOLPH COORS IN THE BREWING INDUSTRY"
Harvard Business Publishing Case 388-018


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Pankaj Ghemawat, Michael D. Whinston
"Ethyl Corp. in 1979"
Harvard Business School Case 388-075

Describes the competitive situation facing the market leader in antiknock additives, the Ethyl Corp. Demand is declining rapidly and Ethyl has to decide whether to close capacity, and if so, how. Raises issues of corporate as well as SBU strategy because antiknock additives are Ethyl's principal product.
**Teaching Note Available

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Pankaj Ghemawat
"Adolph Coors in the Brewing Industry"
HBS Premier Case Collection 388-014

Describes a company that had traditionally followed a strategy quite distinct from its major competitors', its eventual decision to imitate them, and its subsequent performance.
**Teaching Note Available

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat
"XEROX IN 1973"
Harvard Business Publishing Case 387-092


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Pankaj Ghemawat
"FOX BROADCASTING COMPANY"
Harvard Business Publishing Case 387-153


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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat, Jacquelyn Edmonds
"Fox Broadcasting Co."
Harvard Business School Case 387-096

Describes an attempt by Fox Broadcasting to enter the U.S. television broadcasting industry as a fourth network. Intended to integrate the analysis of major investment decisions with business strategy. Leads to a discussion of the investment decision based on industry structure, competitive positions, and sustainability.
**Teaching Note Available

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Pankaj Ghemawat
"Wal-Mart Stores' Discount Operations"
Harvard Business School Case 387-018

Facilitates a discussion of the sources of Wal-Mart Stores' competitive advantage in discount retailing, and the future sustainability of that advantage. Also profiles the company's major diversification move in the early 1980s.
**Teaching Note Available

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Ghemawat, Pankaj, and Ken Mark
"Wal-Mart's International Expansion."
Harvard Business Publishing Case 705-486

This case examines Wal-Mart's International division, which accounts for nearly 20% of Wal-Mart's total sales at the start of 2005 and is supposed to become the biggest driver of revenue growth for the company. It describes how the International organization, headed by John B. Menzer, and how it operates in various countries, particularly China.
This case is not available online. Please contact Harvard Business Publishing to order a copy: http://hbsp.harvard.edu/list/contact-us.

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Pankaj Ghemawat
"Wal-Mart Stores in 2003 (Abridged)."
Harvard Business Publishing Case 705-443


This case is not available online. Please contact Harvard Business Publishing to order a copy: http://hbsp.harvard.edu/list/contact-us.

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat, Davis Dyer
"U.S. Airline Industry 1978-1988 (A) and (B) (Abridged)"
Harvard Business Publishing Case 897-021


This case is not available online.  Please contact Harvard Business Publishing to order a copy: http://hbsp.harvard.edu/list/contact-us.  

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Pankaj Ghemawat, Tarun Khanna
"Tricon Restaurants International: Globalization Re-examined"
Harvard Business Publishing Case 700-030

Describes a leading fast food operator/franchiser trying to consolidate and standardize its operations worldwide and focus its efforts on a few key markets. Lends itself to a discussion of how global the fast food industry is, whether Tricon's new international strategy is consistent with industry structure and its competitive position, and, if so, which country markets to focus on.
This case is not available online. Please contact Harvard Business Publishing to order a copy: http://hbsp.harvard.edu/list/contact-us.

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Pankaj Ghemawat, Jamie Matthews
"GE and the Light Bulb Industry: An Historical Perspective"
Harvard Business Publishing Case 700-008


This case is not available online. Please contact Harvard Business Publishing to order a copy: http://hbsp.harvard.edu/list/contact-us.

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Pankaj Ghemawat
"Du Pont in Titanium Dioxide (A), (B1), and (B6), Teaching Note."
Harvard Business Publishing Case 387-129


This case is not available online. Please contact Harvard Business Publishing to order a copy: http://hbsp.harvard.edu/list/contact-us.

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Pankaj Ghemawat, Ravi Madhavan
"The creation of Arcelor-Mittal."
Harvard Business Publishing Case

This case looks into Mittal's surprise unsolicited bid to acquire Arcelor. The case traces the events that occurred thereafter including the attempts of Arcelor to block the deal. An effort to join hands with Severstal, a Russian company was particularly eventful. Eventually the deal with Mittal did go through at a price of almost doubling the initial offering. Data is given on the Mittal and Severstal for studens to make a studied decision on the attractiveness of each to Arcelor.
This case is not available online. Please contact Harvard Business Publishing to order a copy: http://hbsp.harvard.edu/list/contact-us.

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Pankaj Ghemawat
"Grolsch: Crecimiento mundial"
IESE Business School Case


This case is not available online. Please contact Harvard Business Publishing to order a copy: http://hbsp.harvard.edu/list/contact-us.

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Cases and Teaching Notes

Pankaj Ghemawat, Davis Dyer
"U.S. Airline Industry 1978-1988 (A) and (B) (Abridged)"
Harvard Business School Case 897-021


This case is not available online. Please contact Harvard Business Publishing to order a copy: http://hbsp.harvard.edu/list/contact us.

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Pankaj Ghemawat, Jamie Matthews
"Telecom Industry Worldwide at the Millennium"
Harvard Business School Case 700-067

Depicts the changing global telecom industry as of 1999. In particular, examines the effects of progressive deregulation, technological advances, and shifting demand. Also discusses future industry scenarios and describes the strategies of some of the industry's largest competitors.
This case is not available online. Please contact Harvard Business Publishing to order a copy: http://hbsp.harvard.edu/list/contact-us.

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Pankaj Ghemawat
"Michael Ricks of Ericsson (China) Company Ltd."
Harvard Business School Video Supplements 701-801


This case is not available online.Please contact Harvard Business Publishing to order a copy: http://hbsp.harvard.edu/list/contact-us.

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Pankaj Ghemawat
"Major Home Appliance Industry, The: A Global Perspective."
Harvard Business School Note 700-048

Focuses on the major home appliance industry worldwide. The level of globalization of the major home appliance industry is still modest, so this industry supplies a rich basis for discussing the industry-level determinants of globalization potential, with a particular emphasis on the role of demand. In addition, since the major competitors all have very different strategies for competing internationally, this note also illustrates the range of strategies that can be employed in such situations.
This case is not available online. Please contact Harvard Business Publishing to order a copy: http://hbsp.harvard.edu/list/contact-us.

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Pankaj Ghemawat, Bret J. Baird
"International Competitiveness: Turkey and Its Garment Industry."
Harvard Business School Case 799-033

Considers Porter's diamond model of national competitiveness, as applied to the Turkish garment industry in 1998, offering a framework on which to probe its utility and limitations. Also considers the much-used phrase "national competitiveness" and how it relates to the Turkish context.
This case is not available online. Please contact Harvard Business Publishing to order a copy: http://hbsp.harvard.edu/list/contact-us.

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